Visiting Poland: Part 1

2010 年 9 月 15 日 コメントをどうぞ コメント

Visiting Poland for the Clausius Tower Project (September 2009) Part 1

Eri Yagi (Written Nov. 12, 2009)

I started my trip from Narita Tokyo Airport to Koszalin on the morning of September 17th to deliver a lecture on Clausius’s contribution to the 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics at the solemn session dedicated to Rudolf J.E. Clausius (born in Koszalin) to be held during the 4th Symposium on Vacuum Based Science and Technology, 8th Annual meeting of the German Vacuum Society, DVG, organized by the  Institute of Mechatronics, Nanotechnology and Vacuum Technique, at Koszalin University of Technology in Poland.  My round-trip airfare from Narita to Berlin via Amsterdam on KLM was generously paid for by KUT, as well as a car with a professional driver and Mr. Jupi Poldlaszewki, a freelance writer and one of the Clausius Tower Project promoters, picked me up at the Tegel Berlin Airport.  During the 4-hour drive to Koszalin, I enjoyed talking with Jupi although it was the first occasion to meet him after a 6-year email correspondence. Here I learned that the current development of strong unification of EU countries in the fields of economy and culture had made it possible to build the Clausius Tower.  In particular, the progress of friendly relations between Poland and Germany has played an important role.   Jupi told me that the most important key person was physicist Dr. Jan Staskiewicz, Deputy Director for Development and Cooperation with Industry, the Institute of Mechatronics, Nanotechnology and Vacuum Technique, who had been promoting the tower project for the past six years.  I told Jupi about the drastic change of political scene in Japan where the new government of Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama had come to power through the late August election.  And that Mr. Hatoyama had proposed to decrease Japan’s CO2 output to 25% by 2020. We arrived in Koszalin around 11 p.m. (European time, 7-hour difference from Japan time).  I finally went to bed about 2 a.m. at the Hotel Club 2CV where I stayed from September 17th to the 19th.

The next morning on the 18th I got up at 8 a.m.and although I had not slept properly due to the jetlag, enjoyed the Polish style breakfast which includes pieces of pickles   After that I walked around the hotel to take in the sun light, and found quite a number of parks with wonderful green trees in the city.  I visited a museum near the hotel where such history of Koszalin as the formation of the “old town” before the 13th century was mentioned.  About 3 p.m. in the afternoon a cameraperson who worked for KUT came and took a number of pictures of me in the lobby of the hotel.  Around 3:30 p.m. people from KUT, Jupi, Jan, and a professor of physics from Torun arrived with a bouquet of flowers for me to discuss our schedule for the Clausius session in the garden at the front of the hotel while the cameraperson took pictures of us.

We then went to the main campus of KUT by car where again around a big stone at the front of the building of KUT pictures were taken by the cameraperson and myself. The stone was located there to hold a board of data on the Clausius Tower.  In Jan’s car we went to his Institute which, organized two years before, is some distance from the main campus.  Jan kindly introduced me in side rooms of the Institute where various facilities to produce a high degree of vacuum conditions were arranged for nanophysics experiments. Through this opportunity I asked Jan why he decided to invite me for the Clausius session, Jan said he had found me through a Google “Rudolf Clausius” search.  Borrowing Jan’s room in the Institute, Jupi began to interview me for the local newspaper to be published on the morning of the 21st when my talk was scheduled at the Clausius session. During the interview Jan helped us providing hot drinks. Surprisingly enough, he gave me tea with a beautiful cup, made in Japan!  I appreciated his sensitive hospitality.

Jupi’s interview started with why I had become interested in Clausius as a college student of physics in Japan, and how I came to do research in the history of physics, focusing on Clausius.  My answers would be referred to later in connection with my lecture of the 21st. This interview was published on the morning of the 21st through Jupi’s editorial effort in the local newspaper “MIASO“ ZYJE and the title is “Clausius windziany z Japonii” (Clausius, studied by a Japanese woman).

In the afternoon of September 19th I went to the lecture room 101A (capacity, 200 peopel) at KUT to check the facilities for my talk on the 21st although I had sent my Power-point text (made on a Mac) in advance to the Symposium Chair, Prof Wilter Gulbinskwi who kindly converted it to the Windows format for the use of KUT.  After recognizing no problems with my Power-point text presentation, I could try the Over-head projector system there, which would be used for my transparent sheets together with the non transparent ordinary sheets. Several university people, including Prof. Gulbinskwi helped me in the room. Finally, the possibility to use a black board was demonstrated for me.  Then in the autumn afternoon I enjoyed my way back to the hotel from the top of the hill where KUT is located.  Along the way to the hotel a number of plant seeds were floating in air like golden snow dancing around me.

On the 20th, Jan picked me up in his car and brought me to the Aquarius Spa Hotel, newly built, in Kolobrzeg near the Baltic Sea, where all participants, including me (as an invited guest) of the Conference stayed for 3 nights. In the evening, a welcome reception, sponsored by Vacuum Engineering Works TEPRO S.A. Koszalin was held, where a Swedish buffet style dinner was served. There I enjoyed the company with Jan, Professor Dieter Hoffmann from the Max Planck Institute of Berlin, an invited speaker at the Clausius session, Jupi and his partner, Marga, a physics teacher, who explained to me how to make Japanese style Sushi in Poland.

On the morning of the 21st at 9 a.m. all of us started toward KUT in Koszalin on a community bus, where I sat with Professor Hoffmann with whom I talked about various topics, including Clausius, Mac computers, and the current situations of such former East German cities near the Polish border as Eisenhuettenstd (former Fuerstenberg), the home town of my German conversation teacher and cooking in Tokyo.

We arrived at KUT at about 10 a.m. and the opening ceremony of the conference began with a welcome speech by the Rector of KUT, Prof. Tomasz Krzyriski.  This  was followed by several speeches by representatives from vacuum societies that continued to 10:45 a.m. namely, 15 minutes over the planned schedule. Then the Clausius Session started with my lecture.  I began firstly to introduce myself as follows:

My name is Eri Yagi from Japan. It is my great pleasure to deliver my talk on this wonderful occasion since I have been working for the past 20 years on the history of entropy, focusing on Clausius.  It was the time of my 4th year at College (Ochanomizu University) where I became strongly attracted by Clausius way of thinking in the field of physics.  It was because Clausius included the non-reversible (irreversible) process and un(non)-equal sign of equations while at that time it was more common to deal with the reversible process in the form of symmetry with equations of equal signs in Western physics.

Because of sudden social phenomena, namely the Japanese fishermen who were injured by radioactive fallout, caused by American H-bomb experiments near the Bikini Islands in the Pacific ocean in the spring of 1954, my academic plane was changed from becoming a solid state physicist to an external historian of physics.  I wanted to propose an ideal scientific organization for the welfare of human beings and world peace.  So I started to study the history of scientific institutions.  And I entered the Graduate School, Dept. of Physics, University of Tokyo where I began to work on the history of Riken (which was the most famous scientific institution for theoretical and experimental nuclear physics in Japan before and during The Second World War) with an excellent coworker, Mr. Kiyonobu Itakura under Professor Hidehiko Tamaki (one of the followers of Yoshio Nishina.)  Soon, I became  interested in Derek Price’s method, e.g., statistical approach to the history of science, recently called “scientometrics”.  So I left the University of Tokyo for 3 years to study under Prof. Price at the Dept of History of Science and Medicine, at Yale Graduate School in New Haven.  My research along this line was compiled in the book, Science and Society in Modern Japan, edited by myself together with Prof. Shigeru Nakayama and Mr David Swain (published by the University of Tokyo Press and MIT Press in 1974).  After coming back from the U.S., I joined the group of Dr K. Itakura and Dr Tosaku Kimura to write a biography of Hantaro NAGAOKA, the first Japanese creative physicist, known for his Saturnian atomic model of 1903.  After 10 years of investigation, mainly dealing with Nagaokoa’s scientific papers and manuscripts, our biography, Hantaro Nagaoka was published (by the Asahi Newspaper Publisher in 1973) where I wrote sections of a historical background of Nagaoka’s atomic model and spectroscopy.  Through Nagaoka’s research I shifted from being an external historian to an internal historian of physics.  It was then that I realized my strong interest in R. Clausius’s mechanical theory of heat  and his concept of entropy.

I then went on to say that it was my pleasure to deliver our results with the help of figures and tables. through a Power point text.  Most of our results had been published in the form of papers, which were compiled as a book, called “A Historical Approach to Entropy, collected papers of Eri Yagi and her coworkers on the occasion of her retirement”(from International Publishing Institute, Tokyo, 2002,186pp.)  And I said that I would summarize here the results focusing on Clausius’s contribution to the 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics.  The following is the shortened version of my talk, mentioned above.

Firstly, through text and MS (located at the Deutsches Museum in Munich) analysis : Fourier’s mathematical influence, shown and along the line of this method, e.g. taking the difference between the flow of “in and out”, Clausius 1st law of thermodynamics was presented in the form of the 2nd order differentials.  In detail, taking the difference between the heat flow of “in and out” to the Carnot cycle’s working substance (for example an ideal gas), then Clausius put a ratio between the above heat and work expanded, to be a constant “A (reciprocal to Joule’s J)” e.g., (Heat /Work) equals to A.

Secondly, through mathematical equation analysis: Clausius’s  attitude to treat the 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics as a related set of equations was noticed through a quick glance of our database, which consists of 500 equations from Clausius 16 papers written between 1850 and 1865.  (See A Supplement of the Collected Papers of Eri Yagi and her Coworkers, A Database from R. Clausius’s Abhandlungen, Eri Yagi Institute of Science, Kawagoe, 2002, 72pp.)  Through this attitude Clausius proposed the form of entropy dS(dQ/T) as a complete differential for the reversible process corresponding to energy dU, which was already considered as a complete differential in the field of mechanics.

Thirdly, through experimental table analysis: Clausius was interested in experimental data although he did not carry out experiments. himself. We found the same data tables were used in publications by Clausius and by W. Thomson.

Fourthly, through technical term analysis (which was currently made and reported at the 23rd International Congress of the History of Science, Budapest, 28 July to 2nd August 2009): among Clausius special technical terms(in1850,1854,&1862) such as “Aequivalent (Equivalent)”,“Uncompensirte Verwandlung (Non compensate transformation)” and “Disgregation (Degree of dispersion)” played important roles before the appearance of the term “Entropie (Entropy)” which  was  newly  proposed in his paper of 1865.

Through the above various analyses, it was clearly shown that Clausius was the first presenter of the 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics in the form of differentials together with their well known literary expression, below:

The 1st law: The energy of the universe is constant.

The 2nd law: The entropy of the universe tends to a maximum.

. The second speaker, Prof. Hoffmann, delivered ”Rudolf Clausius (1822-1888) from Koeslin to Berlin & Bonn, from kinetic theory to modern thermodynamics,” which was nicely done with pictures of important physicists and buildings, related to Clausius.

The third speaker, Prof Marek Danielewski of AGH University of Technology, Cracow “Mass transport and entropy production at different length scales “ was interesting from the view point of the modern concept of entropy.

After the coffee break, the Chancellor of KUT, Dr Artur Wergraf, presented the “Clausius Tower” project.  (The Tower, next to the KUT main building, will be established by 2011 in the form of a sea lantern, carrying the light and the Foucault pendulum). Then the ceremony of laying the corner stone for the construction of the Clausius Tower was carried out.  As part of the ceremony each of the participants, including myself, was requested to sign their name on a piece of paper, which was put into a hole made in the stone of a spherical shape. A picture of the conference participants, who left the lecture room 101A, was taken at the front of KUT main building for the commemoration.  About 100 people had come from all over Poland and 12 European countries.  I am the only person to have come from an Asian country. Finally, the stone was placed in the ground, and covered by cement at the front of the big stone with the board of Clausius.  We then returned to Kolobrzeg for lunch and the afternoon session on vacuum based science and technology began in the Hotel.

In the evening of the 21st a Banquet was held in the dining room of the hotel, where a local band played a variety of music, including Polish tunes.  After the banquet Jan and Jupi asked Prof. Hoffmann and me to get together in the lobby in order to discuss the way of promoting the Clausius Tower project in the coming two years. Prof. Hoffmann suggested holding some lecture meetings on Clausius each year.   I suggested producing a new website(URL) of the Clausius Tower project and organizing people, interested in Clausius in a broader sense, through an e-mail network where the progress of the Tower project would be described.  Jan and Jupi also requested me to retune to Koszalin on the occasion of the Tower’s completion in 2011.  The exciting day for me ended with joy feeling that I should keep good health in the coming two years.