Abstruct, ICHST 2009

2012 年 2 月 23 日 コメントをどうぞ コメント

Session 9.2, ICHST 2009, Budapest, Hungary

“A History of Entropy through various Methods”
Eri YAGI, & Rika Tadokoro OKAMOTO
Eri YAGI Institute for History of Science (NPO GKN), Japan

We have been studying a history of entropy through various methods.

1) Our papers were compiled as a book called “A Historical Approach to entropy,” in 2002.

2) In this book R.Clausius’s 16 papers (1850~1865) on the mechanical theory of heat were mainly studied through such various methods as text analysis with the help of Clausius’s own manuscripts, mathematical equation analysis by the use of our own database, experimental data table analysis and technical term analysis. It was clearly recognized that the results acquired through the traditional text analysis were greatly expanded thanks to the other analyses. In addition to this expansion, new findings came out as a result of these analyses. They were
1. Clausius’s pairing treatment of the first and second laws of thermodynamics through the equation analysis,
2. a sort of existence of experimental data distribution in the inter-European academic community which required Clausius to compare his value, 1/A with Joule’s J (the equivalent of work for the unit of heat) through the experimental data table analysis, and
3. the wider possibility for non-natives of German to study the mechanical theory of heat through technical term analysis.

We briefly reported the above result at the annual Conference of the British Society for the History of Science in 2003.

3) In the case of the method of the experimental table analysis: Clausius discussed a number of experimental tables in his papers on thermodynamics although he hardly carried out any experiments. We have collected Clausius’s experimental tables to compare them with W. Thomson’s because they both adopted some data from V. Regnault, a famous French experimentalist at that time. Through the experimental table analysis, the existence of three related tables by E. Clapeyron(1834), W. Thomson(1849) and R. Clausius(1850) was found out. These three tables include the so-called Carnot’s function “C,” the function of temperature, which played an important role in the formation of the second law of thermodynamics.

In the case of the technical term analysis: We started to use Clausius’s 12th paper on the theory of electricity. Firstly, frequently appeared names of 10 physicists in the paper of 1853 were discussed rather than actual technical terms. These10 physicists are interestingly classified in two groups:

1) Physicists in the field of thermodynamics; S.Carnot, Mariotte & Gay-Lussac, Helmholtz, and W. Thomson,

2) Physicists in the field of electricity; Johann Poggendorff(1796-1877), George Ohm(1787-1854), Benjamin Franklin(1706-1790), Thomas Seebeck(1770-1831), and Jean Peltier(1785-1845), The last two physicists are direct predecessors of the thermoelectric effect (Seebeck effect and Peltier effect). W.Thomson(Kelvin) also belongs to the group of predecessors.

At this Congress, we would like to report our recent progress along the above lie. Particularly, through the two methods, namely, through the experimental data table analysis and through the technical term analysis where such typical technical terms as Verwandlung (transformation), Disgregation, Arberit (work) and Werk(action) will be considered as well as those of the 12th paper


1. Eri Yagi, “Studies on the history of thermodynamics through a database”, BSHM Newsletter,39, pp.8-9,1999.

2. Eri Yagi, A Historical Approach to Entropy, Collected Papers of Eri Yagi and her Coworkers, at the Occasion of her Retirement, International Publishing Institute, Tokyo, 186pp. 2002.
Supplement of the Collected Papers of Eri Yagi and her Coworkers, A Database from R. Clausius’s Abhandlungen I- XVI, Eri YAGI Institute for History of Science, Kawagoe, Japan, 72pp. 2002.

3. Eri Yagi, ”Various methods to study the mechanical theory of heat,” Abstract: BSHS Annual Conference, York, 2003.